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Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily

15.11.2018New inflammation inhibitor discovered

A multidisciplinary team of researchers have developed an anti-inflammatory drug molecule with a new mechanism of action. By inhibiting a certain protein, the researchers were able to reduce the signals that trigger an inflammation.

15.11.2018Warning: Chemical weapons risk during a period of very rapid scientific change

Alarming examples of the dangers from chemical weapons have been seen recently in the use of industrial chemicals and the nerve agent sarin against civilians in Syria, and in the targeted assassination operations using VX nerve agent in Malaysia and novichok nerve agent in the UK.

15.11.2018No link between 'hypoallergenic' dogs and lower risk of childhood asthma

Growing up with dogs is linked to a lower risk of asthma, especially if the dogs are female, a new study shows. However, the researchers found no relation between 'allergy friendly' breeds and a lower risk of asthma.

15.11.2018Should you eat a low-gluten diet?

When healthy people eat a low-gluten and fiber-rich diet compared with a high-gluten diet they experience less intestinal discomfort including less bloating which researchers show are due to changes of the composition and function of gut bacteria. The new study also shows a modest weight loss following low-gluten dieting. The researchers attribute the impact of diet on healthy adults more to change in composition of dietary fibers than gluten itself.

15.11.2018Drug combination makes cancer disappear in mice with neuroblastoma

Researchers investigating new treatments for neuroblastoma -- one of the most common childhood cancers -- have found that a combination of two drugs made tumors disappear in mice, making it more effective than any other drugs tested in these animals.

15.11.2018Breakthrough in treatment of restless legs syndrome

New research presents a breakthrough in the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS).

14.11.2018Microgel powder fights infection and helps wounds heal

While making smart glue, a team of engineers discovered a handy byproduct: hydrogen peroxide. In microgel form, it reduces bacteria and virus ability to infect by at least 99.9 percent.

14.11.2018Parents shouldn't worry if their infant doesn't sleep through the night by a year old

The authors of a study found that a large percentage of healthy babies don't start sleeping through the night even at a year old. The research team also examined whether infants who didn't sleep for six or eight consecutive hours were more likely to have problems with psychomotor and mental development, and found no association. The researchers also found no correlation between infants waking up at night and their mothers' postnatal mood.

14.11.2018A new approach to detecting cancer earlier from blood tests

Cancer scientists have combined 'liquid biopsy,' epigenetic alterations and machine learning to develop a blood test to detect and classify cancer at its earliest stages.

14.11.2018Putting food-safety detection in the hands of consumers

Researchers have developed a wireless system that leverages the cheap RFID tags already on hundreds of billions of products to sense potential food contamination -- with no hardware modifications needed. With the simple, scalable system, the researchers hope to bring food-safety detection to the general public.

14.11.2018Mothers infected by dengue may have babies with higher risk of severe Zika, and vice versa

Two new studies provide evidence that previous Dengue infection in pregnant mothers may lead to increased severity of Zika in babies, and that previous Zika infection in mice mothers may increase severity of Dengue infection in their pups. The research supports that maternally acquired antibodies for one virus can assist infection by the other by a process unique to flaviviruses.

14.11.2018How exercise could help fight drug addiction

The siren call of addictive drugs can be hard to resist, and returning to the environment where drugs were previously taken can make resistance that much harder. However, addicts who exercise appear to be less vulnerable to the impact of these environmental cues. Now, research with mice suggests that exercise might strengthen a drug user's resolve by altering the production of peptides in the brain.

14.11.2018Rainforest vine compound starves pancreatic cancer cells

Pancreatic cancer cells are known for their ability to thrive under extreme conditions of low nutrients and oxygen, a trait known in the cancer field as 'austerity.' The cells' remarkable resistance to starvation is one reason why pancreatic cancer is so deadly. Now researchers have identified a compound from a Congolese plant that has strong ''antiausterity'' potential, making pancreatic cancer cells susceptible to nutrient starvation.

14.11.2018Older adults' abstract reasoning ability predicts depressive symptoms over time

Age-related declines in abstract reasoning ability predict increasing depressive symptoms in subsequent years, according to data from a longitudinal study of older adults in Scotland.

14.11.2018Diabetic foot ulcers heal quickly with nitric oxide technology

Around the world, 425 million people live with diabetes and upwards of 15 percent develop foot ulcers, which increases their risk of death 2.5 times. A new nitric oxide-releasing technology has the potential to cut down the healing time of diabetic foot ulcers from 120 days to 21 days.

14.11.2018Checking very preterm babies' head size can help identify long-term IQ problems

Regular early head circumference assessments add valuable information when screening for long-term neurocognitive risk - according to new research.

14.11.2018Scientists engineer a functional optical lens out of 2D materials

Scientists have constructed functional metalenses that are one-tenth to one-half the thickness of the wavelengths of light that they focus. Their metalenses, which were constructed out of layered 2D materials, were as thin as 190 nanometers -- less than 1/100,000ths of an inch thick.

14.11.2018Colder, darker climates increase alcohol consumption and liver disease

People living in colder regions with less sunlight consume more alcohol and experience more alcoholic liver disease.

13.11.2018Pain can be a self-fulfilling prophecy

A new brain imaging study of 34 people found that when people expect to feel intense pain, they do, even if they aren't subjected to painful stimuli. Surprisingly, these false expectations can persist even when reality demonstrates otherwise, the study found.

13.11.2018If your diet fails, try again; your heart will thank you

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease closely track with changes in eating patterns, even only after a month or so.

13.11.2018Synthetic DNA-delivered antibodies protect against Ebola in preclinical studies

Scientists have successfully engineered novel DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs) targeting Zaire Ebolavirus that were effective in preclinical models. Study results showed that DMAbs were expressed over a wide window of time and offered complete and long-term protection against lethal virus challenges. DMAbs may also provide a novel powerful platform for rapid screening of monoclonal antibodies enhancing preclinical development.

13.11.2018Your heart hates air pollution; portable filters could help

The fifth-leading risk factor for mortality worldwide, air pollution presents a major heart health risk. A simple intervention could help people breathe easier at home.

13.11.2018Hands-only CPR training kiosks can increase bystander intervention, improve survival

Hands-Only CPR training kiosks are becoming more widespread and are an effective training tool, a new analysis finds.

13.11.2018New methods to identify Alzheimer's drug candidates with anti-aging properties

Old age is the greatest risk factor for many diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Geroprotectors are a recently identified class of anti-aging compounds. New research has now identified a unique subclass of these compounds, dubbed geroneuroprotectors (GNPs), which are AD drug candidates and slow the aging process in mice.

13.11.2018Weightlifting is good for your heart and it doesn't take much

Lifting weights for less than an hour a week may reduce your risk for a heart attack or stroke by 40 to 70 percent, according to a new study. Spending more than an hour in the weight room did not yield any additional benefit, the researchers found. The results show benefits of strength training are independent of running, walking or other aerobic activity.

13.11.2018'Waltzing' nanoparticles could advance search for better drug delivery methods

Scientists paired drug-delivering nanoparticles like dance partners to reveal that molecules attach to targets on cells differently based upon their position in time. The discovery could improve methods for screening drugs for therapeutic effectiveness.

13.11.2018Moths and magnets could save lives

Bioengineers have combined a virus that infects moths with magnetic nanoparticles to create a potential new therapy for inherited genetic diseases like muscular dystrophy, sickle cell, cystic fibrosis, spinal muscular atrophy and some forms of cancer.

13.11.2018Stealth-cap technology for light-emitting nanoparticles

Scientists have succeeded in significantly increasing the stability and biocompatibility of special light-transducing nanoparticles. They have developed so-called ''upconverting'' nanoparticles that not only convert infrared light into UV-visible light, but also are water-soluble, remain stable in complex body fluids, and can be used to store medications. They have created a tool that could potentially make the fight against cancer more effective.

13.11.2018Tailoring the surface of carbon may hold the key to monitoring patient blood in real-time

Machine learning is increasing the pace of development of customised carbon surfaces with a wide variety of applications.

13.11.2018Autism behaviors show unique brain network fingerprints in infants

A new study has identified unique functional brain networks associated with characteristic behaviors of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 12- and 24-month old children at risk for developing ASD.

13.11.2018Treating obesity: One size does not fit all

Understanding the very different characteristics of subgroups of obese patients may hold the key to devising more effective treatments and interventions, new research found.

13.11.2018Can scientists change mucus to make it easier to clear, limiting harm to lungs?

For people with conditions such as cystic fibrosis and COPD, mucus can get too thick and sticky; coughing alone can't clear it. Infections develop, leading to severe chronic disease and early death. Now, for the first time, scientists have shown why coughing often cannot tear mucus apart and away from the airway lining. And they showed how to make mucus thinner and less sticky so coughing can become a therapeutic aid.

13.11.2018Insufficient sleep in children is associated with poor diet, obesity and more screen time

A new study conducted among more than 177,000 students suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an unhealthy lifestyle profile among children and adolescents.

13.11.2018Small molecules: From beaker to solved 3D structure in minutes

A new method for learning the structures of small molecules, such as hormones, is 'like science fiction.'

12.11.2018Sudden cardiac arrest: New findings

Scientists have recently completed three critical research studies aimed at better understanding sudden cardiac arrest.

12.11.2018How pneumococci challenge our immune system

Pneumococci are the most common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as otitis and sinusitis, as well as of severe infections like pneumonia and meningitis. A new study shows how the bacteria can inhibit immune cell reaction and survive inside cells to give rise to pneumonia.

12.11.2018Pulling the genome apart: Chromosome segregation during mitosis explained

Researchers shed light on the protein complexes and processes that enable microtubules to bind to the centromeres of chromosomes and redistribute them to the daughter cells during mitosis. Via experiments including partial protein deletion, chimeric protein production, and measurement of microtubule pulling force, the team showed that interaction of the Ndc80 complex with the CENP-T pathway of kinetochores, not the CENP-C one, is essential for successful cell division.

12.11.2018Synthetic molecule invades double-stranded DNA

Researchers have developed a synthetic molecule that can recognize and bind to double-stranded DNA or RNA under normal physiological conditions. The molecule could provide a new platform for developing methods for the diagnosis and treatment of genetic conditions.

12.11.2018How mitochondria deploy a powerful punch against life-threatening bacteria

Researchers discover that mitochondria play an important role in supporting the immune system's response against MRSA infection.

12.11.2018New concussion recommendations for kids

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has updated its concussion recommendations to support children and teens engaging in light physical activity and returning to school as they recover. The report, revised for the first time in eight years, also advises against complete removal of electronic devices.

12.11.2018Cancer stem cells get energy from protein, and it's proving to be their Achilles' heel

A new study shows that cancer stem cells switch from metabolizing sugar to metabolizing protein. Clinical trial based on this observation may revolutionize care for older adults with acute myeloid leukemia.

12.11.2018New strategy discovered toward possible prevention of cancers tied to mono

Researchers have discovered a possible path forward in preventing the development of cancers tied to two viruses, including the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis -- more commonly known as mono or the 'kissing disease' -- that infects millions of people around the globe each year.

12.11.2018New insights into the aging brain

A group of scientists investigated why the choroid plexus contains so much more klotho than other brain regions.They showed that klotho functions as a gatekeeper that shields the brain from the peripheral immune system.

12.11.2018'Strongest evidence yet' that being obese causes depression

New research has found the strongest evidence yet that obesity causes depression, even in the absence of other health problems.

12.11.2018How a spider and a pitcher plant can benefit from collaboration

Ecologists have shed light on the relationship between the slender pitcher plant and its 'tenant', the crab spider Thomisus nepenthiphilus, providing insights to the little known foraging behaviors of the spider.

12.11.2018Bacterial pneumonia far more dangerous to the heart than viral pneumonia

Heart complications in patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia are more serious than in patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia, according to new research.

12.11.2018Weight during adolescence may affect pancreatic cancer risk in adulthood

New research has linked adolescent obesity with up to a four-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer later in life. The study's results also suggest that overweight and even higher weight within the 'normal' weight range in men may increase pancreatic cancer risk in a graded manner.

12.11.2018Kawasaki disease: One disease, multiple triggers

Researchers have evidence that Kawasaki Disease (KD) does not have a single cause. By studying weather patterns and geographical distributions of patients in San Diego, the research team determined that this inflammatory disease likely has multiple environmental triggers influenced by a combination of temperature, precipitation and wind patterns.

12.11.2018Defective DNA damage repair leads to chaos in the genome

Scientists have now found a cause for the frequent catastrophic events in the genetic material of cancer cells that have only been known for a few years: If an important DNA repair system of the cells has failed, this promotes fragmentation and defective assembly of the genetic material. Cancer cells with such a repair defect can now possibly be treated by a specific group of drugs.

12.11.2018How your muscles form

An international team of researchers discovers two proteins essential to the development of skeletal muscle.

12.11.2018Exosomes 'swarm' to protect against bacteria inhaled through the nose

A research team describes a newly discovered mechanism. The findings shed new light on our immune systems -- and also pave the way for drug delivery techniques to be developed that harness this natural transportation process from one group of cells to another.

12.11.2018Decrease in specific gene 'silencing' molecules linked with pediatric brain tumors

Experimenting with lab-grown brain cancer cells, researchers have added to evidence that a shortage of specific tiny molecules that silence certain genes is linked to the development and growth of pediatric brain tumors known as low-grade gliomas.

10.11.2018Salmonella found to be resistant to different classes of antibiotics

Common bacteria that cause foodborne diseases are resistant to antibiotics used to treat infections, according to research that identified 39 genes responsible for this resistance.

09.11.2018The new face of South American people

Study by 72 researchers from eight countries concludes that the Lagoa Santa people are descendants of Clovis culture migrants from North America. Distinctly African features attributed to Luzia were wrong.

09.11.2018Alzheimer's and cardiovascular disease share common genetics in some patients

Genetics may predispose some people to both Alzheimer's disease and high levels of blood lipids such as cholesterol, a common feature of cardiovascular disease, according to a new study.

09.11.2018Grief linked to sleep disturbances that can be bad for the heart

People who have recently lost a spouse are more likely to have sleep disturbances that exacerbate levels of inflammation in the body, according to new research. These elevated levels of inflammation may increase risk for cardiovascular illness and death.

09.11.2018Mild blast forces cause brain pathology and deficits, despite lack of macroscopic damage

Using a rat model of bTBI, researchers show how even mild exposure to a single blast shock wave is able to induce small but potentially very meaningful pathogenic effects that accumulate with time. These effects, detected at the microscopic level, included microvascular damage, injury to nerve axons and signs of neuroinflammation in various brain regions. Brain function also changed, as shown by impaired short-term synaptic plasticity.

09.11.2018Researchers find new pathway to regulate immune response, control diseases

Researchers have found a potential new pathway to regulate immune response and potentially control inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as meningitis and sepsis.

09.11.2018Improving city parks may be one path to help make residents more active

Researchers found that small improvements to a city's ParkScore -- an evaluation of a city's park system -- could lead to more physical exercise for its residents. The Trust for Public Land created the ParkScore as an index to rank the park systems of the nation's largest 100 cities, they added.

09.11.2018New flexible, transparent, wearable biopatch, improves cellular observation, drug delivery

Researchers have developed a new flexible and translucent base for silicon nanoneedle patches to deliver exact doses of biomolecules directly into cells and expand observational opportunities.

 
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