New research shows that data routinely collected by health care companies -- if made available to researchers and public health agencies -- could enable more accurate forecasts of when the next flu season will peak, how long it will last and how many people will get sick.
Scientists have discovered that the anti-inflammatory protein NLRP12 normally helps protect mice against obesity and insulin resistance when they are fed a high-fat diet. The researchers also reported that the NLRP12 gene is underactive in people who are obese, making it a potential therapeutic target for treating obesity and diabetes, both of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other serious conditions.
Zombie cells are the ones that can't die but are equally unable to perform the functions of a normal cell. These zombie, or senescent, cells are implicated in a number of age-related diseases. Researchers have now expanded that list.
Researchers performed detailed whole-community sequencing on the microbial communities of three maternal body sites (vagina, gut, and oral cavity) over the course of pregnancy from the first trimester through delivery revealing variations in bacterial diversity.
Stiff microbial films often coat medical devices, household items and infrastructure such as the inside of water supply pipes, and can lead to dangerous infections. Researchers have developed a system that harnesses the power of bubbles to propel tiny particles through the surfaces of these tough films and deliver an antiseptic deathblow to the microbes living inside.
A new review looks at the major factors affecting bone health in mematologic stem cell transplant recipients, and provides expert guidance for the monitoring, evaluation and treatment of bone loss in these patients.
Researchers examined the effects of aging on neuroplasticity in the primary auditory cortex, the part of the brain that processes auditory information. Neuroplasticity refers to the brain's ability to modify its connections and function in response to environmental demands, an important process in learning.
A research team has delineated a complex symbiosis between a 'parasitic' noncoding RNA gene and its protein coding 'host' gene in human cells. The study reveals how co-evolution of the host gene and parasite gene has shaped a feedback mechanism in which the parasite gene plays a completely new and surprising part as regulator of the host gene protein production. The breakthrough finding opens an entirely new avenue of research in gene expression.
Weight gain during early childhood is related to the composition of oral bacteria of two-year-old children, suggesting this understudied aspect of a children's collection of microorganisms could serve as an early indicator for childhood obesity.
Drinking green tea has been linked to health benefits ranging from cardiovascular disease prevention to weight loss. Although many of these claims still need to be verified in the clinic, an antioxidant in green tea called epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) appears to have beneficial effects in cells and animals. Now, researchers have found a surprising use for EGCG: sneaking therapeutic RNAs into cells.
The new system uses an algorithm that can take D videos and turn them into 3D printed 'motion sculptures' that show how a human body moves through space. In addition to being an intriguing aesthetic visualization of shape and time, the team envisions that their 'MoSculp' system could enable a much more detailed study of motion for professional athletes, dancers, or anyone who wants to improve their physical skills.
The sugar content of most types of yogurt is well above the recommended threshold, reveals an analysis of the nutrient content of available UK supermarket products. And organic varieties, often viewed as healthier options, contain some of the highest average sugar content, at 13.1 g/100 g, the findings indicate.
Children who have access to green spaces close to their homes have fewer respiratory problems, such as asthma and wheezing, in adulthood, according to new research. In contrast, children who are exposed to air pollution are more likely to experience respiratory problems as young adults.
Historical bias is a key reason why biomedical researchers continue to study the same 10 percent of all human genes while ignoring many genes known to play roles in disease, according to a new study. This bias is bolstered by research funding mechanisms and social forces.
The consumption of foods with higher scores on the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS), reflecting a lower nutritional quality, is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer.
Researchers have unraveled new insights into the way cells leverage G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their cellular waste disposal systems to control inflammation. The findings suggest some existing cancer drugs that inhibit these cellular activities might be repurposed to treat vascular inflammation, which occurs when artery-blocking plaques form in atherosclerosis.
New research increases understanding of a mysterious sensory cell located in the olfactory epithelium, the patch of nasal tissue that contains odor-detecting olfactory receptor cells. The findings suggest that the so-called microvillous cells (MVCs) may protect the vulnerable olfactory epithelium by detecting and initiating defenses against viruses, bacteria, and other potentially harmful invaders.
New research showing that the first bacteria introduced into the gut have a lasting impact, may one day allow science to adjust microbiomes -- the one-of-a-kind microbial communities that live in our gastrointestinal tracts -- to help ward off serious chronic diseases.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an umbrella term for a number of gut disorders -- including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease -- remains a clinical challenge. Now, researchers have identified a protein that drives intestinal inflammation. This finding highlights new opportunities for creating targeted therapeutics.
Researchers have found a new common thread linking nearly all of the trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases, which include ALS, Huntington's Disease and Fragile X Syndrome, involving the complicated 3D patterns that the DNA is folded into in order to fit in the nucleus of the cell. Nearly all of the short tandem repeats known to grow unstable in disease are located at the boundaries that separate neighboring folded domains.
Scientists have made an unexpected discovery while investigating the triggering factors of colon cancer: Cell stress in combination with an altered microbiota in the colon drives tumor growth. Previously, it was assumed that this combination only contributes to inflammatory intestinal diseases.
A multidisciplinary team of researchers has developed a portable, easy-to-use device for quick and accurate screening of diseases. This versatile technology platform called enVision (enzyme-assisted nanocomplexes for visual identification of nucleic acids) can be designed to detect a wide range of diseases - from emerging infectious diseases (e.g. Zika and Ebola) and high-prevalence infections (e.g. hepatitis, dengue, and malaria) to various types of cancers and genetic diseases.
One of the challenges in cancer research is improving the delivery of chemo drugs to enhance their efficacy while decreasing the risk of side effects. Scientists now perform a theoretical prediction of adsorption of a well-known chemo drug onto active carbon with aluminium inclusions, to show its potential as an oral chemotherapy delivery capsule.
Babies exposed to higher levels of organochlorine compounds in the womb go on to have worse lung function in childhood, according to new research. These compounds, which include the pesticide DDT, as well as electrical insulators and other industrial products, are now banned in most parts of the world. However, because they degrade very slowly, they are still present in the environment and in foods.
New research shows that while a three-base pair, in-frame deletion called p.Met992del in the NF1 gene has a mild phenotype for people with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1, or NF1, the mutation does cause complications. These include non-optic brain tumors, mostly low-grade and asymptomatic, as well as cognitive impairment and/or learning disabilities.
Society has encouraged people to be more physically active, yet we are actually becoming less active. This new study offers a possible explanation: Our brains may be innately attracted to sedentary behavior. Electroencephalograms showed that test subjects had to summon extra brain resources when trying to avoid physical inactivity.
Researchers have found significantly lower birth weights in male infants -- an average decrease of 38 grams, or approximately 1.3 ounces -- born to women who had been exposed to trauma at some point in their lives and who secreted higher levels of cortisol, a hormone related to stress, in late pregnancy.
Researchers have successfully deployed a Zika virus vaccine to target and kill human glioblastoma brain cancer stem cells, which had been transplanted into mice. In a new study, the team shows that a live, attenuated version of the Zika virus could form the basis of a new treatment option for this fatal brain cancer.
Researchers conducted a study to observe walking biomechanics of 130 subjects who have had ACL reconstruction surgery. They found people who report lingering symptoms post-surgery either underload their injured leg (6-12 months after surgery) or overload the injured leg (after the 24-month mark), as compared to those who have had the surgery but no longer report symptoms.
A new study indicates that people who have slept for fewer than seven of the past 24 hours have higher odds of being involved in and responsible for car crashes. The risk is greatest for drivers who have slept fewer than four hours.
First results from a clinical trial of a procedure to open obstructed airways in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have shown that it significantly reduces problems associated with the disease and is safe.
A table in a recently published paper tells the story of 30 families who have, sometimes after years of searching, finally received an answer about the condition that has plagued one or more family members.
A new study finds that type 2 diabetes remains overwhelmingly the most common type of diabetes diagnosed in American adults who have the disease. The study found that among Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes, 91.2 percent have type 2 diabetes and 5.6 percent have type 1 diabetes.
A new study suggests that defenses against extreme temperatures give E. coli bacteria an advantage in fending off certain drugs. The work could help doctors administer antibiotics in a more precise way.