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Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily

12.08.2020New study suggests ADHD- like behavior helps spur entrepreneurial activity

Many people have experienced a few nights of bad sleep that resulted in shifting attention spans, impulsive tendencies and hyperactivity the next day -- all behaviors resembling ADHD. A new study found that this dynamic may also be linked to increased entrepreneurial behavior.

12.08.2020Swallowing this colonoscopy-like bacteria grabber could reveal secrets about your health

Your gut bacteria could say a lot about you, such as why you're diabetic or how you respond to certain drugs. But scientists can see only so much of the gastrointestinal tract to study the role of gut bacteria in your health. Researchers built a way to swallow a tool that acts like a colonoscopy, except that instead of looking at the colon with a camera, the technology takes samples of bacteria.

12.08.2020'Reelin' in a new treatment for multiple sclerosis

In an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), decreasing the amount of a protein made in the liver significantly protected against development of the disease's characteristic symptoms and promoted recovery in symptomatic animals, scientists report.

12.08.2020Lack of females in drug dose trials leads to overmedicated women

Women are more likely than men to suffer adverse side effects of medications because drug dosages have historically been based on clinical trials conducted on men, suggests new research.

12.08.2020New generation of drugs show early efficacy against drug-resistant TB

New drug regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis shows early effectiveness in 85 percent of patients in a cohort including many with serious comorbidities. The results suggest a global need for expanded access to two recently developed medicines, bedaquiline and delamanid. Study cohort included many people who would have been excluded from trials because of comorbidities, severity of disease or extent of drug resistance. Findings highlight the importance of innovative regimens to improve outcomes for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

12.08.2020Researchers identify a protein that may help SARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly through cells

New research identifies a protein encoded by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, that may be associated with the quick spread of the virus through cells in the human body.

12.08.2020Improving treatment of spinal cord injuries

Bioengineers have created an osmotic therapy device that gently removes fluid from the spinal cord to reduce swelling in injured rats with good results. The device can eventually be scaled up for testing in humans.

12.08.2020Human milk based fortifiers improve health outcomes for the smallest premature babies

More than 380,000 babies are born prematurely in the United States each year, according to the March of Dimes. 'Preemies' can be severely underweight babies and struggle to get the nutrients they need from breast milk alone, so neonatal intensive care units provide an additional milk fortifier, either in the form of cow's milk or manufactured from donor breast milk, to keep them healthy.

12.08.2020Study provides insights into how Zika virus suppresses the host immune system

A research team has outlined how the Zika virus, which constituted an epidemic threat in 2016, suppresses the immune system of its host. The work provides valuable structural and functional information on the interaction between ZIKV and its host and offers a framework for the development of vaccines and antivirals.

12.08.2020Yoga shown to improve anxiety, study shows

A new study finds yoga improves symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, suggesting the popular practice may be helpful in treating anxiety in some people.

12.08.2020Oxygen therapy harms lung microbiome in mice

A new mouse study hints that oxygen therapy may have unintended consequences via an unexpected source -- the microbiome.

12.08.2020Nutrition labelling is improving nation's diet

Households eat more healthily when retailers display clear nutritional information on own-brand food products, say researchers.

12.08.2020Exercise induces secretion of biomarkers into sweat

The aim was to reveal the potential of microRNAs in sweat extracellular vesicles in monitoring exercise performance.

12.08.2020Stress and anger may exacerbate heart failure

Mental stress and anger may have clinical implications for patients with heart failure, according to a new report.

12.08.2020Face mask insert could help diagnose conditions

Researchers have demonstrated that a fiber inserted into an ordinary N95 face mask can collect compounds in exhaled breath aerosols for analysis. The new method could allow screening for disease biomarkers on a large scale.

12.08.2020Internal differences: A new method for seeing into cells

The new technology may help answer outstanding questions about the immune system, cancer, Alzheimer's, and more.

12.08.2020A quick, cost-effective method to track the spread of COVID-19 through untreated wastewater

Researchers have demonstrated that, from seven methods commonly used to test for viruses in untreated wastewater, an adsorption-extraction technique can most efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2.

12.08.2020Evidence in mice that electroacupuncture reduces inflammation via specific neural pathways

Stimulating the nervous system using small electric current by acupuncture could tamp down systemic inflammation in the body, suggests new research in mice.

12.08.2020Nanotubes in the eye that help us see

A new mechanism of blood redistribution that is essential for the proper functioning of the adult retina has just been discovered in vivo.

12.08.2020Flipping a metabolic switch to slow tumor growth

The enzyme serine palmitoyl-transferase can be used as a metabolically responsive 'switch' that decreases tumor growth, according to a new study.

12.08.2020Scientists identify hundreds of drug candidates to treat COVID-19

Scientists have used machine learning to identify hundreds of new potential drugs that could help treat COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, or SARS-CoV-2. To identify several candidates, they developed a drug discovery pipeline -- a type of computational strategy linked to artificial intelligence.

12.08.2020New way to make bacteria more sensitive to antibiotics discovered

Researchers have discovered a new way to reverse antibiotic resistance in some bacteria using hydrogen sulphide (H2S). By adding H2S releasing compounds to Acinetobacter baumannii - a pathogenic bacteria that does not produce H2S on its own - they found that exogenous H2S sensitised the A. baumannii to multiple antibiotic classes. It was even able to reverse acquired resistance in A. baumannii to gentamicin.

12.08.2020Experimental COVID-19 vaccine prevents severe disease in mice

Researchers have created a COVID-19 vaccine candidate from a replicating virus. This experimental vaccine has proven effective at preventing pneumonia in mice.

12.08.2020Lipoic acid supplements help some obese but otherwise healthy people lose weight

A compound given as a dietary supplement to overweight but otherwise healthy people in a clinical trial caused many of the patients to slim down.

12.08.2020New microrobot with in situ, in vivo bioprinting offers promise for gastric wounds

Researchers have taken the first step towards a new way of treating gastric wounds by using a microrobot combined with the new concept of 'in situ in vivo bioprinting' to carry out tissue repair inside the body.

12.08.2020Why walking to work may be better for you than a casual stroll

Walking with a purpose -- especially walking to get to work -- makes people walk faster and consider themselves to be healthier, a new study has found. The study found that walking for different reasons yielded different levels of self-rated health. People who walked primarily to places like work and the grocery store from their homes, for example, reported better health than people who walked mostly for leisure.

12.08.2020Teens' social media use does not raise risk for depression, study finds

New findings refute popular wisdom and may provide relief to parents and educators concerned with adolescents' heavy use of social media -- particularly during the COVID-19 crisis.

12.08.2020New machine learning tool predicts devastating intestinal disease in premature infants

Researchers have developed a sensitive and specific early warning system for predicting necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants before the life-threatening intestinal disease occurs. The prototype predicts NEC accurately and early, using stool microbiome features combined with clinical and demographic information.

12.08.2020'AeroNabs' promise powerful, inhalable protection against COVID-19

Scientists have devised a novel approach to halting the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The researchers engineered a completely synthetic, production-ready molecule that straitjackets the crucial SARS-CoV-2 machinery that allows the virus to infect our cells. In an aerosol formulation they tested, these molecules could be self-administered with a nasal spray or inhaler.

12.08.2020Health disparities among former NFL players

Among former NFL players, Black, Hawaiian, and athletes from other racial backgrounds report worse physical, mental health outcomes than white players. The widest health gaps emerged between Black and white former NFL players. Black former players reported worse health outcomes in all five health categories, compared with their white peers. Presence of health disparities among former NLF players reflects the deep and pervasive nature of systemic inequities that persist even among elite athletes, study suggests.

12.08.2020Bouncing, sticking, exploding viruses: Understanding the surface chemistry of SARS-CoV-2

Researchers highlight the need to understand the different environmental conditions that affect the surface chemistry of viruses like SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the disease COVID-19.

11.08.2020Does high blood sugar worsen COVID-19 outcomes?

Preliminary observations of COVID-19 patients with diabetes inspired an algorithm for glucose monitoring that's suspected to help combat the virus' serious complications.

11.08.2020AI-enhanced precision medicine identifies novel autism subtype

A novel precision medicine approach enhanced by artificial intelligence has laid the groundwork for what could be the first biomedical screening and intervention tool for a subtype of autism, reports a new study.

11.08.2020COVID-19 clinical trials lack diversity

Despite disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization and death among people of color, minority groups are significantly underrepresented in COVID-19 clinical trials.

11.08.2020New prediction model can forecast personalized risk for COVID-19-related hospitalization

Researchers have developed and validated a risk prediction model (called a nomogram) that can help physicians predict which patients who have recently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, are at greatest risk for hospitalization.

11.08.2020Inexpensive, accessible device provides visual proof that masks block droplets

In a proof-of-concept study, researchers report that a simple, low-cost technique provided visual proof that face masks are effective in reducing droplet emissions during normal wear. They found that the best face coverings were N95 masks without valves -- the hospital-grade coverings that are used by front-line health care workers. Surgical or polypropylene masks also performed well. Hand-made cotton face coverings provided good coverage, eliminating a substantial amount of the spray from normal speech. But bandanas and neck fleeces such as balaclavas didn't block the droplets much at all.

11.08.2020Brain-NET, a deep learning methodology, accurately predicts surgeon certification scores based on neuroimaging data

Researchers demonstrated how a deep learning framework they call 'Brain-NET' can accurately predict a person's level of expertise in terms of their surgical motor skills, based solely on neuroimaging data.

11.08.2020Plant-based 'meats' improve some cardiovascular risk factors compared with red meat

Swapping out red meat for certain plant-based meat alternatives can improve some cardiovascular risk factors, according to a new study.

11.08.2020Research exposes new vulnerability for SARS-CoV-2

Using nanometer-level simulations, researchers have discovered a positively charged site (known as the polybasic cleavage site) located 10 nanometers from the actual binding site on the spike protein. The positively charged site allows strong bonding between the virus protein and the negatively charged human-cell receptors.

11.08.2020Causes of higher risk of stress fractures in female runners

A pair of new studies identify overlooked physiological factors and lack of knowledge around wellness as contributors to risk of stress fracture in women who run.

11.08.2020Pasteurization inactivates COVID-19 virus in human milk: new research

A new study has confirmed what researchers already suspected to be the case: heat inactivates SARS-CoV-2 in human milk.

11.08.2020Masks, PPE materials should be hydrophilic

Making masks and personal protective equipment (PPE) with hydrophilic surfaces, where droplets of coronavirus spread out and dry faster, could reduce infection risk, researchers say.

11.08.2020Multifocal contact lenses slow myopia progression in children

Children wearing multifocal contact lenses had slower progression of their myopia, according to new results. The findings support an option for controlling the condition, also called nearsightedness, which increases the risk of cataracts, glaucoma and retinal detachment later in life.

11.08.2020Vaping linked to COVID-19 risk in teens and young adults, study finds

Vaping is linked to a substantially increased risk of COVID-19 among teenagers and young adults, according to a new study.

11.08.2020Why does COVID-19 impact only some organs, not others?

COVID-19 proliferates through a receptor present in most of the human body. But if the receptor is so pervasive, why does the virus seem to target only specific organs?

11.08.2020Excess weight among pregnant women may interfere with child's developing brain

Obesity in expectant mothers may hinder the development of the babies' brains as early as the second trimester, a new study finds.

11.08.2020Early neural activity associated with autism

Researchers have found evidence of signature brain activity in infants that predicted ASD symptoms later at 18 months old.

11.08.2020Malaria discovery could expedite antiviral treatment for COVID-19

New research into malaria suggests targeting enzymes from the human host, rather than from the pathogen itself, could offer effective treatment for a range of infectious diseases, including COVID-19.

11.08.2020Enzyme discovered in the gut could lead to new disease biomarker

Enzymes used by bacteria to break down mucus in the gut could provide a useful biomarker for intestinal diseases, according to new research.

11.08.2020Using physics to improve root canal efficiency

Scientists report calculations with a model of a conical-shaped root canal inside a tooth. A crucial step in this common dental procedure is irrigation, or rinsing, of the root canal cavity with an antibacterial solution, and the researchers used computational fluid dynamics to determine the effect of temperature on the cleaning efficiency: Higher temperatures can, to a point, improve cleansing, but this benefit falls off if the temperature gets too high.

11.08.2020Immunotherapy-resistant cancers eliminated in mouse study

In a mouse study, researchers have found that an antibody that targets the protein TREM2 empowers tumor-destroying immune cells and improves the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy.

11.08.2020Experts recommend strict, costly approaches for reopening schools

The American Academy of Pediatrics recently highlighted the importance of students' returning to the classroom in its COVID-19 return-to-school guidance. Jason Wang, MD, PhD, of Stanford Health Policy also believes it's time for kids in the United States to get back to school. But he believes school districts could better protect their 55 million K-12 students by adhering to an additional set of strict measures.

11.08.2020Researchers create mask filtration effectiveness hierarchy

Infection prevention experts set out to gather evidence on the fitted filtration efficiency of dozens of different types of masks and mask modifications, including masks sterilized for reuse, expired masks, novel masks sourced from domestic and overseas sources, and homemade masks.

11.08.2020Clot permeability linked to first-attempt success of aspiration thrombectomy

A multicenter study reports that clot perviousness, or permeability - the ability for contrast used during the initial imaging workup to seep through a clot, as estimated by CT imaging - is associated with ''first-pass success'' in large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes initially treated with an aspiration thrombectomy approach. LVO stroke treatment success using a stent retriever-first approach to remove the brain vessel blockage was less dependent on clot perviousness.

11.08.2020Study reveals immune-system paralysis in severe COVID-19 cases

A new study shows that in severely ill COVID-19 patients, 'first-responder' immune cells, which should react immediately to signs of viral or bacterial presence in the body, instead respond sluggishly.

11.08.2020Right under your nose: A more convenient way to diagnose Alzheimer's disease

Scientists discover a new way to diagnose Alzheimer's disease by analyzing the levels of specific proteins in nasal discharge. This simple and inexpensive method could help in timely diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, in order to start treatment as soon as possible, thus delaying disease progression.

11.08.2020Gluten in wheat: What has changed during 120 years of breeding?

In recent years, the number of people affected by celiac disease, wheat allergy or gluten or wheat sensitivity has risen sharply. But why is this the case? Could it be that modern wheat varieties contain more immunoreactive protein than in the past? A new study is helping to answer this question.

11.08.2020Air pollution in Ireland associated with strokes, research finds

Scientists have found that air pollution in the winter is associated with more hospitalisations for all strokes in Dublin.

11.08.2020Protein uses two antiviral strategies to ward off infections

To protect humans against infection, a protein called MARCH8 tags the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) for destruction while it merely holds HIV hostage, a new study shows.

11.08.2020Modelling parasitic worm metabolism suggests strategy for developing new drugs against infection

Scientists have revealed a way to eradicate parasitic worms by stopping them from using alternative metabolism pathways provided by bacteria that live within them, according to new findings.

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