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Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily

23.01.2019Prolonged spaceflight could weaken astronauts' immune systems

Researchers report impaired NK-cell function during long-duration space travel.

23.01.2019New science details discovery of bacterial pathogen in brains of Alzheimer's patients

New science uncovers how an unlikely culprit, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) -- the bacterium commonly associated with chronic gum disease -- appears to drive Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology.

23.01.2019Cancer has a biological clock and this drug may keep it from ticking

Scientists find and test a promising drug that stops cancer by interfering with the cancer cells' metabolism and other circadian-related functions.

23.01.2019Those with inadequate access to food likely to suffer from obesity

Researchers have assessed the link between food-related hardships and obesity. Using a national sample of adults across the United States, the researchers learned that individuals who are food insecure are at an increased risk of obesity. Study results also showed that the individuals who live in food deserts are at an elevated risk for obesity.

23.01.2019CRISPR/Cas9 used to control genetic inheritance in mice

Using active genetics technology, biologists have developed the world's first CRISPR/Cas9-based approach to control genetic inheritance in a mammal. The achievement in mice lays the groundwork for further advances based on this technology, including biomedical research on human disease. Future animal models may be possible of complex human genetic diseases, like arthritis and cancer, which are not currently possible.

23.01.2019Old cells repair damage in the brains of MS patients

A new study shows that there is a very limited regeneration of cells in the brain of patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). These findings underline the importance of treating MS at an early stage of the disease progression, when the affected cells can repair the damage as they are not replaced by new ones.

23.01.2019Study sheds light on brain cell changes in people with MS

Fresh insights into the types of cells found in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis could help develop improved therapies, research has found. The study focused on cells in the brain that help to repair damage to nerve cells caused by the disease.

23.01.2019In surprising reversal, scientists find a cellular process that stops cancer before it starts

Scientists studying the relationship of telomeres to cancer made a surprising discovery: a cellular recycling process called autophagy -- generally thought of as a survival mechanism -- actually promotes the death of cells, thereby preventing cancer initiation.

23.01.2019Small metabolites have big effects on the intestinal immune response

Normal gut bacteria are instrumental in inducing an immune response in the presence of invading pathogens. However, exactly how commensal bacteria cause CX3CR1+ macrophages in the intestine to protrude their tentacle-like dendrites to capture antigens, triggering the immune response, was unclear. Now, a research team has shown that common bacterial metabolites pyruvate and lactate interact with the GPR31 receptor on CX3CR1+ cells, enhancing the immune response and protecting against gut pathogens.

23.01.2019Flu vaccination keeps COPD patients out of the hospital

A new study establishes that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) face heightened risks of death, critical illness, and hospitalization if they develop the flu and demonstrates the beneficial effects of influenza vaccination. The report also reveals gaps in care that need to be addressed, including less-than-universal influenza vaccination in patients with COPD and failure to provide an antiviral medication in a timely manner once the patient is diagnosed with the flu.

23.01.2019Protein engineering extends the language of immune cells

Small infections can be fatal: Millions of people die each year from sepsis, an overreaction of the immune system. A new immune signaling molecule now provides the basis for potential new approaches in sepsis therapy.

23.01.2019Childhood lead exposure linked to poor adult mental health

Lead exposure in childhood appears to have long-lasting negative effects on mental health and personality in adulthood, according to a study of people who grew up in the era of leaded gasoline. The findings reveal that the higher a person's blood lead levels at age 11, the more likely they are to show signs of mental illness and difficult personality traits by age 38.

23.01.2019Emergency caesareans put new mothers at higher risk of developing postnatal depression

A major study provides new evidence that emergency C-sections put new mothers at greater risk of experiencing mental health problems after giving birth.

23.01.2019Can you pick an MMA winner by studying fighters' faces?

With the UFC set to appear in Prague for the first time this February 23rd, Czech researchers have been getting into the fighting spirit. Participants were unable to predict fighters' MMA score based on 360 degree headshots -- but their face-based favorites tended to have higher anaerobic performance

23.01.2019Unique form of chronic sinusitis in older patients

Older patients with a diagnosis of chronic sinusitis -- a disease of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that often persists over many years -- have a unique inflammatory signature that may render them less responsive to steroid treatment, according to a new study.

23.01.2019High-protein rice brings value, nutrition

A new advanced line of rice, with higher yield, is ready for final field testing prior to release. On average, it has a protein content of 10.6 percent, a 53 percent increase from its original protein content. It also needs less heat, time, and usually less water to cook.

23.01.2019A muscle protein promotes nerve healing

Damaged fibers in the brain or spinal cord usually don't heal. Neuroscientists have high hopes for new methods based on gene therapy.

23.01.2019It may be possible to restore memory function in Alzheimer's, preclinical study finds

New research reveals a new approach to Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may eventually make it possible to reverse memory loss, a hallmark of the disease in its late stages.

23.01.2019Identifying factors that influence mercury levels in tuna

Most consumers' exposure to toxic methylmercury occurs when they eat fish. New research could help clarify why methylmercury concentrations in tuna vary geographically.

23.01.2019Suicide risk in people with autism

Researchers have conducted the first population-based study of suicidality in individuals with ASD in the United States. The 20-year retrospective study found that for individuals with autism, particularly females, the risk of suicide has increased through time compared to their non-autistic peers.

23.01.2019Targeted treatment shrinks deadly pediatric brain tumors

For children -- whose tiny bodies are still growing -- chemotherapy and radiation treatments can cause lifelong damage. Now, scientists have reported that a targeted therapy that blocks a protein called LSD1 was able to shrink tumors in mice with a form of pediatric brain cancer known as medulloblastoma. LSD1 inhibitors are currently under evaluation in clinical trials for other cancers.

22.01.2019Infectious disease researchers unveil the secret life of flesh-eating bacteria

Using a tool first used for strep throat in horses, researchers unveiled the secret life of flesh-eating bacteria, learning how it causes severe disease while living deep within muscle. The team focused on necrotizing myositis.

22.01.2019Feeling groovy: Neurons integrate better with muscle grown on grooved platforms

Growing muscle tissue on grooved platforms helps neurons more effectively integrate with the muscle, a requirement for engineering muscle in the lab that responds and functions like muscle in the body, researchers found in a new study. Such engineered muscle with integrated nerves has applications in reconstructive and rehabilitative medicine, as well as for engineered biological machines or robots.

22.01.2019Outbreak of paralyzing disease linked to non-polio enterovirus

Using multiple genomic sequencing tests, TGen identified a specific non-polio enterovirus -- EV-D68 -- among at least four children, according to a new study. The finding is significant because AFM cases are continuing to increase and there has been no official recognition that this disease is being caused by EV-D68, which limits the research community's ability to develop preventative measures, such as new vaccines.

22.01.2019Materials chemists tap body heat to power 'smart garments'

Many wearable biosensors, data transmitters and similar tech advances for personalized health monitoring have now been 'creatively miniaturized,' says a materials chemist, but they require a lot of energy, and power sources can be bulky and heavy. Now researchers report that they have developed a fabric that can harvest body heat to power small wearable microelectronics such as activity trackers.

22.01.2019Machine learning could reduce testing, improve treatment for intensive care patients

Doctors in intensive care units face a continual dilemma: Every blood test they order could yield critical information, but also adds costs and risks for patients. To address this challenge, researchers are developing a computational approach to help clinicians more effectively monitor patients' conditions and make decisions about the best opportunities to order lab tests for specific patients.

22.01.2019Aspirin may lower stroke risk in women with history of preeclampsia

A new study suggests aspirin may lower stroke risk among middle-aged women with a history of preeclampsia.

22.01.2019New skin test detects prion infection before symptoms appear

Prions can infect both humans and animals, causing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, mad cow disease in cattle, and chronic wasting disease in elk and deer. The infectious, misfolded protein particles often go undetected as they destroy brain tissue, causing memory loss, mobility issues, and ultimately death. Preclinical detection of prions has proven difficult, but new research suggests skin samples hold early signs of prion disease that precede neurologic symptoms.

22.01.2019To halt malaria transmission, more research focused on human behavior needed

Wherever possible, researchers should not just focus on mosquito behavior when working to eliminate malaria, but must also consider how humans behave at night when the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito is highest.

22.01.2019Breastmilk sugars differ in pregnant women on probiotics

The complex sugars found in human breastmilk, long believed to be fixed in their composition, may change in women who are taking probiotics, according to new research.

22.01.2019Parental PTSD affects health behavior and aging among offspring of Holocaust survivors

A new study on intergenerational transmission of trauma has found evidence that Holocaust survivors suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and their adult offspring exhibit more unhealthy behavior patterns and age less successfully in comparison to survivors with no signs of PTSD or parents who did not experience the Holocaust and their offspring.

22.01.2019Courage to aim for less cleanliness?

Current hygiene measures against aggressive germs could sometimes be counterproductive, according to a group of researchers. They propose to examine the role diversity of microorganisms plays in our domestic environment more intensively. The findings could challenge existing strategies for fighting infectious diseases and resistant germs.

22.01.2019Teens keep active despite asthma or eczema, study finds

A fresh look at how teenagers are affected by their asthma, eczema or obesity has some reassuring findings.

22.01.2019New tool enables imaging of neural activity with near-infrared light

A new, groundbreaking tool for visualizing neural activity has implications for understanding brain functions and disorders.

22.01.2019New explanation for Alexander the Great's death

Did Alexander the Great meet his demise more than 2,300 years ago because of the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)?

22.01.2019Diet low in added sugars significantly improves fatty liver disease in children

A randomized clinical study of adolescent boys with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) found that a diet low in free sugars (those sugars added to foods and beverages and occurring naturally in fruit juices) resulted in significant improvement in NAFLD compared to a usual diet.

22.01.2019Erasing memories associated with cocaine use reduces drug seeking behavior

Researchers identified the brain circuits that form memories associating environmental cues with cocaine use. Targeting these memories may improve the success of exposure therapy to prevent relapse.

22.01.2019Supplement makes (mouse) moms' milk better; pups benefit for life

Giving nursing mouse mothers a supplement called nicotinamide riboside (NR) promotes maternal weight loss, boosts milk production and quality, and leads to long-lasting physical, neurological, and behavioral benefits in the pups.

22.01.2019Possible link between rotavirus vaccine and decline in type 1 diabetes

A drop in the number of young children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes could be associated with the introduction of routine rotavirus vaccination of Australian infants, according to a new study.

22.01.2019Frequent use of aspirin can lead to increased bleeding, study finds

A new study has found that taking aspirin on a regular basis to prevent heart attacks and strokes, can lead to an increase risk of almost 50 percent in major bleeding episodes.

22.01.2019Noninvasive light-sensitive recombinase for deep brain genetic manipulation

A research team presents a noninvasive light-sensitive photoactivatable recombinase suitable for genetic manipulation in vivo. The highly light-sensitive property of photoactivatable Flp recombinase will be ideal for controlling genetic manipulation in deep mouse brain regions by illumination with a noninvasive light-emitting diode. This easy-to-use optogenetic module will provide a side-effect free and expandable genetic manipulation tool for neuroscience research.

22.01.2019A tradeoff in the neural code

New research suggests that our brains are like modern washing machines -- evolved to have the latest sophisticated programming, but more vulnerable to breakdown and prone to develop costly disorders. Scientists conducted experiments comparing the efficiency of the neural code in non-human and human primates and found that as the neural code gets more efficient, the robustness that prevents errors is reduced.

22.01.2019Multiple sclerosis: Helping cells to help themselves

Diseases such as multiple sclerosis are characterized by damage to the 'myelin sheath', a protective covering wrapped around nerve cells akin to insulation around an electrical wire. Researchers have discovered how the body initiates repair mechanisms which will limit the extent of any damage to this sheath. Their findings may provide a basis for the development of new drugs to treat multiple sclerosis.

22.01.2019Test for esophageal cancer could save millions of lives

New research could result in a simple and inexpensive screening for cancer of the esophagus -- a disease that claims more than 400,000 lives around the world each year.

22.01.2019Graphene and related materials safety: Human health and the environment

Researchers reviewed the current research into the safety of graphene and related materials looking at both human health and environmental impact.

22.01.2019Blocking toxic-protein production in ALS

An approved drug that blocks an integrated stress response shows promise in preliminary tests against ALS and frontotemporal dementia.

22.01.2019Inability to integrate reward info contributes to undervalued rewards in schizophrenia

People with schizophrenia have a hard time integrating information about a reward -- the size of the reward and the probability of receiving it -- when assessing its value, according to a new study.

22.01.2019Long-read DNA analysis can give rise to errors

Advanced technologies that read long strings of DNA can produce flawed data that could affect genetic studies, research suggests.

22.01.2019Human mutation rate has slowed recently

Researchers have discovered that the human mutation rate is significantly slower than for our closest primate relatives. The new knowledge may be important for estimates of when the common ancestor for humans and chimpanzees lived -- and for conservation of large primates in the wild.

22.01.2019Having stressed out ancestors improves immune response to stress

Having ancestors who were frequently exposed to stressors can improve one's own immune response to stressors, according to researchers. The results suggest that family history should be considered to predict or understand the health implications of stress.

22.01.2019Synthetic flaxseed derivative helps heart function in septic mice

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that develops in response to infection. One of its major complications is cardiovascular dysfunction. Now, scientists show that a novel synthetic compound derived from flaxseed can reverse this and improve heart function in mice with sepsis.

22.01.2019Human respiratory viruses continue to spread in wild chimpanzees

Less than two years after the first report of wild chimpanzees in Uganda dying as a result of a human 'common cold' virus, a new study has identified two other respiratory viruses of human origin in chimpanzee groups in the same forest.

22.01.2019Concussions linked to epilepsy development

Experiments show a strong relationship between changes in astrocytes after mild traumatic brain injury and the eventual occurrence of a seizure.

22.01.2019New genes associated with the leading cause of blindness

A new study identifies genes associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) that could represent new targets for future drug development.

22.01.2019Exercise before surgery can protect both muscle and nerves, study suggests

Exercise can protect both muscle and nerves from damage caused by the restoration of blood flow after injury or surgery, new research shows.

22.01.2019Cause of bone loss in joint implant patients uncovered in new study

Researchers have discovered the long-sought reason that many people with joint replacements experience harmful inflammation and bone loss. Their finding may pave the way for new therapies to reduce pain and prevent the need for follow-up surgery.

22.01.2019Frog eggs help researchers understand repair of DNA damages

The DNA replication process, which takes place every time a cell divides, also triggers repair of DNA damage, researchers have described in a new study. Scientists have studied extracts from frog eggs, whose proteins are very similar to those of human cells. The researchers hope the new research results can be used to develop more effective treatments for cancer in the long run.

22.01.2019Orthodontics no guarantee of long-term oral health

A commonly held belief among the general public is orthodontic treatment will prevent future tooth decay. Research has found that this is not the case.

22.01.2019Faulty molecular master switch may contribute to AMD

A signaling pathway controlled by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) could be involved in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

22.01.2019Investigators close in on best treatment guidelines for critical limb ischemia

A new report chronicles a multi-site randomized controlled trial that seeks to compare treatment efficacy, functional outcomes, cost effectiveness, and quality of life for 2,100 patients suffering from the condition.

 
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