Science Daily

https://www.sciencedaily.com

Health and Medicine

Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily

22.03.2019Squishing blood stem cells could facilitate harvest for transplants

How deformable cells are, and thus how stiff or squishy they are, plays an important role in retaining blood-forming stem cells in their marrow niches and thus preserving their long-term repopulation capabilities.

22.03.2019Anti-TB drugs can increase risk of TB re-infection

Current treatments for tuberculosis (TB) are very effective in controlling TB infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). They don't, however, always prevent reinfection. Why this happens is one of the long-standing questions in TB research. A team of scientists may have found the answer... in the gut.

22.03.2019Ankle exoskeleton fits under clothes for potential broad adoption

The device does not require additional components such as batteries or actuators carried on the back or waist.

22.03.2019Potential new therapy for liver diseases

Drug therapy may effectively treat a potentially life-threatening condition associated with cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases, according to a new study.

22.03.2019Mailing colorectal cancer screening kit found effective, regardless of financial incentive

Roughly a quarter of patients overdue for colorectal cancer screening mailed completed kits back within two months, even if they weren't given any kind of financial incentive.

22.03.2019A protein's surprising role offers clues to limit graft-vs.-host disease

In a surprising finding, researchers showed the protein NLRP6 aggravated the difficult symptoms of gastrointestinal graft-vs.-host disease. Knocking out this protein in mice led to significantly better survival and less severe GVHD.

22.03.2019When neurons are out of shape, antidepressants may not work

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed medication for major depressive disorder (MDD), yet scientists still do not understand why the treatment does not work in nearly thirty percent of patients with MDD. Now, researchers have discovered differences in growth patterns of neurons of SSRI-resistant patients. The work has implications for depression as well as other psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia that likely also involve abnormalities of the serotonin system in the brain.

22.03.2019How does estrogen protect bones? Unraveling a pathway to menopausal bone loss

Women who have reached menopause are at a greater risk of developing osteoporosis, which can lead to bone fractures and long-term impairment of mobility. Studies have suggested a link between reduced bone density and low estrogen levels due to menopause, but the basis for this link is unclear. Researchers found that the protein Sema3A plays a key role in maintaining healthy bones, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue to treat osteoporosis.

22.03.2019New mechanism to reduce inflammation

Researchers have identified two proteins that act as gatekeepers to dampen a potentially life-threatening immune response to chronic infection.

22.03.2019Sleep problems, Alzheimer's disease are linked, but which comes first?

A new article explores the pathophysiological factors that link sleep disturbances and Alzheimer's disease. Better understanding of this connection may lead to potential diagnostics and therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases and dementia.

22.03.2019Unequal pain relief at home for dying patients

Pain relief and end of life care is not being provided equally to people with advanced progressive diseases who were at home during their last three months of life, according to a study of 43,000 people who died across England.

22.03.2019Stricter US state gun laws linked to safer high schools

Adopting stricter state gun laws is linked to a safer school experience for students, a new study has found. Strengthening gun laws at state level was associated with teens being less likely to report being threatened or injured with a weapon at school, miss at least one day of school due to feeling unsafe, or to carry a weapon at any location.

22.03.2019New drug combination shows promise for common pediatric brain tumor

A new combination treatment aimed at resistant and recurrent low-grade gliomas slowed tumor growth and killed tumor cells in laboratory and mouse models.

21.03.2019Breast ultrasound and cancer detection rates increased under new laws

State breast density notification laws that mandate reporting of mammogram results can prompt further screening and modestly boost cancer detection rates, say researchers.

21.03.2019First of its kind statistics on pregnant women in US prisons

In what is believed to be a first-of-its-kind systematic look at pregnancy frequency and outcomes among imprisoned US women, researchers say almost 1,400 pregnant women were admitted to 22 US state and all federal prisons in a recent year. They also found that most of the prison pregnancies -- over 90 percent -- ended in live births with no maternal deaths.

21.03.2019Brain region discovered that only processes spoken, not written words

Patients in a new study were able to comprehend words that were written but not said aloud. They could write the names of things they saw but not verbalize them. For instance, if a patient in the study saw the word 'hippopotamus' written on a piece of paper, they could identify a hippopotamus in flashcards. But when that patient heard someone say 'hippopotamus,' they could not point to the picture of the animal.

21.03.2019Study in mice examines impact of reused cooking oil on breast cancer progression

Compounds in thermally abused cooking oils may trigger genetic, biochemical changes that hasten the progression of late-stage breast cancer, promoting tumor cells' growth and proliferation.

21.03.2019Gift card incentives connected to healthier outcomes in employee wellness programs

Previous research shows that when choosing between different incentive options, employees prefer cash rewards. But cash might not be the most effective incentive. Its replacement? Gift cards.

21.03.2019Common cause in sudden death syndromes

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) are syndromes that share many medical similarities but whose physiological causes are poorly understood. An opinion article publishing March 21 in the journal Trends in Neurosciences suggests that the inability for an individual to wake up when their CO2 blood levels rise, likely due to a faulty neural reflex, may be a shared cause for incidences of death in both disorders.

21.03.2019Sleep and ageing: Two sides of one coin?

Researchers have discovered a brain process common to sleep and ageing in research that could pave the way for new treatments for insomnia.

21.03.2019New evidence links lifespan extension to metabolic regulation of immune system

Researchers have uncovered a new mechanism of lifespan extension that links caloric restriction with immune system regulation.

21.03.2019High-fructose corn syrup boosts intestinal tumor growth in mice

Consuming a daily modest amount of high-fructose corn syrup -- the equivalent of people drinking about 12 ounces of a sugar-sweetened beverage daily -- accelerates the growth of intestinal tumors in mouse models of the disease, independently of obesity, according to new research.

21.03.2019Study shows alarming increases of firearm deaths in US school-age children

From 1999 to 2017, 38,942 US children ages 5 to 18 years old were killed by firearms, averaging more than 2,000 deaths a year. In 2017 alone, 2,462 school-age children were killed by firearms compared to 144 police officers and 1,000 active military worldwide who died in the line of duty. The study finds significant increases that began with an epidemic in 2009, followed by another one in 2014. Each of these epidemics has continued through 2017.

21.03.2019Antibodies stabilize plaque in arteries

Researchers have found that type IgG antibodies play an unexpected role in atherosclerosis. A study on mice shows that the antibodies stabilize the plaque that accumulates on the artery walls, which reduces the risk of it rupturing and causing a blood clot. It is hoped that the results will eventually lead to improved therapies.

21.03.2019The evolution of brain tumors

Scientists have found in a recent study that only three different genetic alterations drive the early development of malignant glioblastomas. At least one of these three cancer drivers was present in all tumors investigated. The tumors develop for up to seven years before they become noticeable as symptoms and are diagnosed. However, in contrast to their early development, glioblastomas, which return after therapy, share no concurrent genetic alterations.

21.03.2019Fertility restored in non-human primate model of childhood cancer survivorship

In a first, researchers have reported in a non-human primate model that immature testicular tissue can be cryopreserved, and later be used to restore fertility to the same animal.

21.03.2019No evidence that calcium increases risk of AMD

Eating a calcium-rich diet or taking calcium supplements does not appear to increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to the findings of a study by scientists at the National Eye Institute (NEI). AMD is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness among people age 65 and older in the United States. The study findings are published in JAMA Ophthalmology.

21.03.2019How team sports change a child's brain

Adult depression has long been associated with shrinkage of the hippocampus, a brain region that plays an important role in memory and response to stress. Now, new research has linked participation in team sports to larger hippocampal volumes in children and less depression in boys ages 9 to 11.

21.03.2019Hidden differences between pathology of CTE and Alzheimer's disease

A new study challenges the belief that Alzheimer's disease and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy have identical pathology.

21.03.2019Discovery may lead to precision-based strategy for triple negative breast cancer

A researcher in the Vera Bradley Foundation Center for Breast Cancer Research at the Indiana University School of Medicine, working in collaboration with researchers from the University of Maryland, recently reported several important findings related to triple negative breast cancer and its future treatment in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

21.03.2019Western bias in human genetic studies is 'both scientifically damaging and unfair'

Despite efforts to include diversity in research, people of European ancestry continue to be vastly overrepresented and ethnically diverse populations largely excluded from human genomics research, according to the authors of a new commentary. This lack of diversity in studies has serious consequences for science and medicine.

21.03.2019Examining ball pits as a playground for pathogenic germs

Ball pits used in children's physical therapy -- similar to those made popular by restaurants catering to families -- may contribute to germ transmission between patients, according to new research.

21.03.2019Pathogenic, drug-resistant bacteria found in wastewater treatment plants

Infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are a global public health threat causing serious illness and even death. In a new study, researchers conducted a survey of 20 municipal wastewater plants in England, and isolated drug-resistant Enterococcus faecium from all sites in both untreated and treated wastewater plants except three, which use ultraviolet light disinfection. A genomic comparison of E. faecium isolates from wastewater and bloodstream isolates of infected patients revealed two major lineages.

21.03.2019Solving the efficiency of Gram-negative bacteria

Researchers have discovered how antibiotic-resistant bacteria construct their defense system -- a finding that could lead to new treatments for currently untreatable infections.

21.03.2019New brain research challenges our understanding of sleep

A new study has for the first time uncovered the large-scale brain patterns and networks in the brain which control sleep, providing knowledge which in the future may can in the long term help people who experience problems sleeping.

21.03.2019Bacteria in urine: Not always an indication of infection

Doctors should think carefully before testing patients for a urinary tract infection (UTI) to avoid over-diagnosis and unnecessary antibiotic treatment, according to updated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) guidelines.

21.03.2019Blue Brain solves a century-old neuroscience problem

New research explains how the shapes of neurons can be classified using mathematical methods from the field of algebraic topology. Neuroscientists can now start building a formal catalogue for all the types of cells in the brain. Onto this catalogue of cells, they can systematically map the function and role in disease of each type of neuron in the brain.

21.03.2019C-sections are seen as breastfeeding barrier in US, but not in other global communities

A new study finds that indigenous mothers in farming communities in Yucatán, Mexico, breastfeed for about 1.5 months longer following cesarean deliveries than they do following vaginal deliveries. Researchers believe this is possible because the mothers live in an exceptionally supportive breastfeeding environment.

21.03.2019Prenatal allergies prompt sexual changes in offspring

A single allergic reaction during pregnancy prompts sexual-development changes in the brains of offspring that last a lifetime, new research suggests. Female rats born to mothers exposed to an allergen during pregnancy acted more characteristically 'male' -- mounting other female rodents, for instance -- and had brains and nervous systems that looked more like those seen in typical male animals.

21.03.2019Research implicates causative genes in osteoporosis, suggesting new targets for future therapy

Scientists have harnessed powerful data analysis tools and three-dimensional studies of genomic geography to implicate new risk genes for osteoporosis, the chronic bone-weakening condition that affects millions of people. Knowing the causative genes may later open the door to more effective treatments.

21.03.2019Study identifies possible causes of and protectors against premature birth

Seven types of bacteria and certain immune factors in a woman's vagina and cervix may be responsible for increasing the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) or protect against it, according to a new study.

21.03.2019New perspective on production of blood cells and immune cells

A new study provides a thorough accounting of blood cell production from hematopoietic stem cells. The results are important for understanding disorders such as anemia, diseases of the immune system, and blood cancers such as leukemias and lymphomas.

21.03.2019How 'sleeper cell' cancer stem cells are maintained in chronic myelogenous leukemia

Even when chronic myelogenous leukemia is in remission, 'sleeper cell,' quiescent leukemic stem cells are maintained in microenvironments in the bone marrow. This maintenance is poorly understood. Researchers now describe how niche-specific expression of a particular chemokine by a particular type of bone marrow cell controls quiescence of these treatment-resistant leukemic stem cells. The chemokine is CXCL12, and the particular bone marrow cells expressing it are mesenchymal stromal cells.

21.03.2019Naltrexone implant helps HIV patients with opioid dependence prevent relapse

A new study shows that a naltrexone implant placed under the skin was more effective at helping HIV-positive patients with an opioid addiction reduce relapse and have better HIV-related outcomes compared to the oral drug.

21.03.2019Neglected diseases continue to require attention despite progress

Few novel drugs have been developed to treat neglected diseases in recent decades, Brazilian researchers warn.

21.03.2019Delusions may stem from sticky beliefs, study finds

Delusions are one of the most common symptoms of psychosis, but little is known about what causes them. A new study offers insight into the development of delusions, which could lead to better treatments for people with psychosis.

21.03.2019Using more-specific 'genetic scissors' may avoid problems associated with gene editing

A new study suggests that there could be a way to bypass barriers to making CRISPR gene-editing treatments a viable option. Researchers found that using more-precise gene-editing technology that induces fewer breaks in DNA may keep stem cells' natural damage-response pathways under control.

21.03.2019Study finds cells maintain a complete molecular 'memory' of their embryonic origins

In research that casts cells as curators of their own history, scientists have discovered that adult tissues retain a memory, inscribed on their DNA, of the embryonic cells from which they arose. The discovery led to one even more intriguing -- that the memory is fully retrievable: under certain conditions, cells can play the story of their development in reverse to switch on genes that were active in the fetal state.

21.03.2019African-Americans more likely to be misdiagnosed with schizophrenia, study finds

African-Americans with severe depression are more likely to be misdiagnosed as having schizophrenia, according to a new study.

21.03.2019Bacteria bide their time when antibiotics attack

Scientists have built a model to predict how long, on average, it takes to eradicate a bacterial infection with antibiotics. The model could help doctors fight resistance by prescribing antibiotics that neither over- or under-dose a patient.

21.03.2019Study links perimenopause to accelerated fat mass gains, lean mass losses

A new study confirms what women approaching menopause have long suspected: menopause does make fat go up. The study finds that women undergoing perimenopause lost lean body mass and more than doubled their fat mass. The research demonstrates that body mass index (BMI) is a very important clinical tool for predicting health events, such as getting diabetes or having cardiovascular disease -- but is a less useful gauge of cardio-metabolic risk in older women.

21.03.2019Discovery paves way for precision medicine in future

Scientists have discovered a way to view the immune cell 'landscape' of bowel cancer tumors, paving the way towards more individualized medicine and treatment for many other diseases in the future.

21.03.2019Protecting homes with netting window screens can reduce malaria parasite infection

Protecting houses against mosquitoes with netting window screens can suppress malaria vector populations and dramatically reduce human parasite infection prevalence, according to new research.

21.03.2019New microscope captures large groups of neurons in living animals

Researchers have developed a microscope specifically for imaging large groups of interacting cells in their natural environments. The instrument provides scientists with a new tool for imaging neurons in living animals and could provide an unprecedented view into how large networks of neurons interact during various behaviors.

21.03.2019Small vessel disease MRI marker linked to worse cognitive health in older adults

Seemingly harmless fluid-filled spaces around the cerebral small vessels, commonly seen on brain MRIs in older adults, are now thought to be associated with more compromised cognitive skills, according to a Vanderbilt University Medical Center study published in Neurology.

21.03.2019Childhood trauma may affect brain structure, predisposing adults to recurring major depressive disorder

Early life trauma may affect the structure of the brain in a way that makes clinical depression more likely to be severe and recurrent, according to a two-year observational study.

21.03.2019Imaging method reveals long-lived patterns in cells of the eye

Cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) form unique patterns that can be used to track changes in this important layer of tissue in the back of the eye, researchers have found. Using a combination of adaptive optics imaging and a fluorescent dye, the researchers used the RPE patterns to track individual cells in healthy volunteers and people with retinal disease.

21.03.2019Analyzing a Facebook-fueled anti-vaccination attack: 'It's not all about autism'

Pitt scientists find a viral anti-vaccination Facebook campaign wasn't 'all about autism,' but instead centered on four distinct themes.

21.03.2019Excess hormones could cause a condition that can lead to blindness in women, study finds

Research has found that increased levels of hormones including testosterone could cause a brain condition that can lead to blindness in women.

21.03.2019Cryptosporidium parasite detected in Minnesota groundwater

When consumed in contaminated water, the microscopic parasite Cryptosporidium can cause symptoms of stomach cramps, diarrhea and fever. Now, researchers have detected evidence of the parasite in about 40 percent of surveyed wells in public water systems in Minnesota -- even wells not influenced by surface water. The team emphasizes that they don't know whether the parasite levels are high enough to actually cause health concerns.

 
Page visits: 1816