Paediatricians worldwide are seeing rapidly increasing numbers of children with a wide spectrum of inflammatory syndromes temporally associated with the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. These emerging disorders appear to represent unusual responses to COVID-19 driven by children’s immune systems, with overlapping features with Kawasaki Disease (KD), a rare paediatric inflammatory disorder.
Currently, paediatricians around the world are managing these patients with treatments that they judge to be best for their patients with the resources they have available; these include a range of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory treatments. Furthermore, many centres will not have certain treatments available due to a worldwide shortage of many agents as a result of their use in COVID-19 patients. This has raised urgent questions for children, families and their clinicians, including: are there clinical or blood markers which predict disease severity? Do the available anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory treatments improve the outcomes including reducing the risk of coronary artery aneurysms? What are the risks and benefits of these treatments? What is the risk of long-term complications, e.g. coronary artery aneurysm, and how does this relate to syndrome and severity?
The aim of this study is to collect anonymised data on all patients with this emerging condition using an online case report form. Capturing the patient’s clinical findings, inflammatory markers, treatments and outcomes will allow a careful analysis of these data to advance the understanding of these disorders and their complications and rapidly provide answers on the questions as to which patients to treat, which treatments work and which may be harmful.