Tryggve Lundar
Position: Professor, MD, PhD
Phone: +47 23074301
Email:

Thesis: Neuro-intensive care monitoring in open-heart surgery

 

Author network for Tryggve Lundar by COREMINE medical


Publications 2017

Stensvold E, Krossnes BK, Lundar T, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Frič R, Due-Tønnessen P, Bechensteen AG, Myklebust TÅ, Johannesen TB, Brandal P (2017)
Outcome for children treated for medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS-PNET) - a retrospective analysis spanning 40 years of treatment
Acta Oncol, 56 (5), 698-705
PubMed 28325133

Publications 2016

Paulsen AH, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Lundar T, Lindegaard KF (2016)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting and ventriculocisternostomy (ETV) in 400 pediatric patients. Shifts in understanding, diagnostics, case-mix, and surgical management during half a century
Childs Nerv Syst, 33 (2), 259-268
PubMed 27796553

Paulsen AH, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Lundar T, Lindegaard KF (2016)
Persistent shunt dependency and very late shunt failure in a 3-year-old boy with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)
Childs Nerv Syst, 33 (2), 213-215
PubMed 27988877

Publications 2015

Due-Tønnessen BJ, Egge A, Lundar T, Krossnes B, Stensvold E, Due-Tønnessen P, Brandal P (2015)
Posterior fossa ependymoblastoma diagnosed in the second month of life: uneventful 12 years survival after gross total resection followed by chemotherapy
Springerplus, 4, 389
PubMed 26251773

Eide PK, Lundar T (2015)
Arne Torkildsen and the ventriculocisternal shunt: the first clinically successful shunt for hydrocephalus
J Neurosurg, 124 (5), 1421-8
PubMed 26339852

Lundar T, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Egge A, Krossnes B, Stensvold E, Due-Tønnessen P, Brandal P (2015)
Neurosurgical treatment of brain tumors in the first 6 months of life: long-term follow-up of a single consecutive institutional series of 30 patients
Childs Nerv Syst, 31 (12), 2283-90
PubMed 26174616

Lundar T, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Krossnes B, Due-Tønnessen P, Brandal P (2015)
Posterior fossa ependymoma in childhood: 60 years event-free survival after partial resection—a case report
Childs Nerv Syst, 31 (9), 1573-6
PubMed 26047947

Moberget T, Andersson S, Lundar T, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Heldal A, Endestad T, Westlye LT (2015)
Long-term supratentorial brain structure and cognitive function following cerebellar tumour resections in childhood
Neuropsychologia, 69, 218-31
PubMed 25665770

Moberget T, Hilland E, Andersson S, Lundar T, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Heldal A, Ivry RB, Endestad T (2015)
Patients with focal cerebellar lesions show reduced auditory cortex activation during silent reading
Brain Lang, 161, 18-27
PubMed 26341544

Paulsen AH, Lundar T, Lindegaard KF (2015)
Pediatric hydrocephalus: 40-year outcomes in 128 hydrocephalic patients treated with shunts during childhood. Assessment of surgical outcome, work participation, and health-related quality of life
J Neurosurg Pediatr, 16 (6), 633-41
PubMed 26359766

Publications 2014

Lundar T, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Egge A, Scheie D, Brandal P, Stensvold E, Due-Tønnessen P (2014)
Neurosurgical treatment of pediatric low-grade midbrain tumors: a single consecutive institutional series of 15 patients
J Neurosurg Pediatr, 14 (6), 598-603
PubMed 25325421

Lundar T, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Scheie D, Brandal P (2014)
Pediatric spinal ependymomas: an unpredictable and puzzling disease. Long-term follow-up of a single consecutive institutional series of ten patients
Childs Nerv Syst, 30 (12), 2083-8
PubMed 25079883

Publications 2013

Holm I, Monclair T, Lundar T, Stadheim B, Prescott TE, Eiklid KL (2013)
A 5.8 kb deletion removing the entire MNX1 gene in a Norwegian family with Currarino syndrome
Gene, 518 (2), 457-60
PubMed 23370340

Lundar T, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Egge A, Scheie D, Stensvold E, Brandal P (2013)
Neurosurgical treatment of oligodendroglial tumors in children and adolescents: a single-institution series of 35 consecutive patients
J Neurosurg Pediatr, 12 (3), 241-6
PubMed 23870041

Monclair T, Lundar T, Smevik B, Holm I, Ørstavik KH (2013)
Currarino syndrome at Rikshospitalet 1961-2012
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 133 (22), 2364-8
PubMed 24287836

Sorteberg A, Nordermark TH, Finset A, Lindegaard KF, Lundar T, Sorteberg W (2013)
Over-aggressive treatment of grade V SAH patients
Neurosurgery, 73 (3), E560-1
PubMed 23756752

Publications 2012

Due-Tønnessen BJ, Lundar T, Egge A, Scheie D (2012)
Neurosurgical treatment of low-grade cerebellar astrocytoma in children and adolescents: a single consecutive institutional series of 100 patients
J Neurosurg Pediatr, 11 (3), 245-9
PubMed 23240848

Publications 2010

Haug T, Sorteberg A, Finset A, Lindegaard KF, Lundar T, Sorteberg W (2010)
Cognitive functioning and health-related quality of life 1 year after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in preoperative comatose patients (Hunt and Hess Grade V patients)
Neurosurgery, 66 (3), 475-84; discussion 484-5
PubMed 20124932

Paulsen AH, Lundar T, Lindegaard KF (2010)
Shunt survival Response
J. Neurosurg.-Pediatr., 6 (6), 526

Paulsen AH, Lundar T, Lindegaard KF (2010)
Twenty-year outcome in young adults with childhood hydrocephalus: assessment of surgical outcome, work participation, and health-related quality of life
J Neurosurg Pediatr, 6 (6), 527-35
PubMed 21121726

Publications 2009

Haug T, Sorteberg A, Sorteberg W, Lindegaard KF, Lundar T, Finset A (2009)
Cognitive functioning and health related quality of life after rupture of an aneurysm on the anterior communicating artery versus middle cerebral artery
Br J Neurosurg, 23 (5), 507-15
PubMed 19718555

Haug T, Sorteberg A, Sorteberg W, Lindegaard KF, Lundar T, Finset A (2009)
Surgical repair of unruptured and ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms: impact on cognitive functioning and health-related quality of life
Neurosurgery, 64 (3), 412-20; discussion 421-2
PubMed 19240602

Publications 2007

Haug T, Sorteberg A, Sorteberg W, Lindegaard KF, Lundar T, Finset A (2007)
Cognitive outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: time course of recovery and relationship to clinical, radiological, and management parameters
Neurosurgery, 60 (4), 649-56; discussion 656-7
PubMed 17415201

Meling TR, Tiller C, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Egge A, Eide PK, Frøslie KF, Lundar T, Helseth E (2007)
Audits can improve neurosurgical practice--illustrated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy
Pediatr Neurosurg, 43 (6), 482-7
PubMed 17992036

Publications 2006

Bentsen G, Breivik H, Lundar T, Stubhaug A (2006)
Hypertonic saline (7.2%) in 6% hydroxyethyl starch reduces intracranial pressure and improves hemodynamics in a placebo-controlled study involving stable patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage
Crit Care Med, 34 (12), 2912-7
PubMed 17075367

Publications 2005

Lundar T (2005)
[Treatment of intracranial aneurysms]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 125 (16), 2162
PubMed 16138124

Nestvold K, Lundar T, Mowinckel P, Stavem K (2005)
Predictors of headache 22 years after hospitalization for head injury
Acta Neurol Scand, 112 (1), 13-8
PubMed 15932350

Rønning C, Sundet K, Due-Tønnessen B, Lundar T, Helseth E (2005)
Persistent cognitive dysfunction secondary to cerebellar injury in patients treated for posterior fossa tumors in childhood
Pediatr Neurosurg, 41 (1), 15-21
PubMed 15886508

Publications 2004

Bentsen G, Breivik H, Lundar T, Stubhaug A (2004)
Predictable reduction of intracranial hypertension with hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch: a prospective clinical trial in critically ill patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 48 (9), 1089-95
PubMed 15352953

Publications 2003

Helseth E, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Lundar T, Scheie D, Skullerud K, Wesenberg F, Lote K, Cappelen J, Unsgård G, Stokland T, Wester K (2003)
[Intracranial tumors in children]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 123 (4), 451-5
PubMed 12643055

Helseth E, Meling T, Lundar T, Scheie D, Skullerud K, Lote K, Unsgård G, Kloster R, Langmoen IA, Wester K (2003)
[Intracranial tumors in adults]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 123 (4), 456-61
PubMed 12643056

Lindegaard KF, Bakke SJ, Pedersen HK, Lundar T (2003)
Impact of Guglielmi detachable coils on economic outcome of treating intracranial aneurysms - New technology does not mean higher costs
Riv. Neuroradiol., 16 (6), 1195-1200

Publications 2002

Due-Tønnessen BJ, Helseth E, Scheie D, Skullerud K, Aamodt G, Lundar T (2002)
Long-term outcome after resection of benign cerebellar astrocytomas in children and young adults (0-19 years): report of 110 consecutive cases
Pediatr Neurosurg, 37 (2), 71-80
PubMed 12145515

Eide PK, Due-Tønnessen B, Helseth E, Lundar T (2002)
Differences in quantitative characteristics of intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic children treated surgically or conservatively
Pediatr Neurosurg, 36 (6), 304-13
PubMed 12077475

Eide PK, Helseth E, Due-Tønnessen B, Lundar T (2002)
Assessment of continuous intracranial pressure recordings in childhood craniosynostosis
Pediatr Neurosurg, 37 (6), 310-20
PubMed 12422046

Helseth E, Due-Tønnessen B, Egge A, Eide PK, Meling T, Lundar T, Frøslie KF (2002)
[Treatment of hydrocephalus with endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 122 (10), 994-8
PubMed 12082709

Meling TR, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Lundar T, Helseth E (2002)
[Occult spinal dysraphism]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 122 (9), 913-6
PubMed 12082834

Publications 2001

Due-Tønnessen B, Helseth E, Skullerud K, Lundar T (2001)
Choroid plexus tumors in children and young adults: report of 16 consecutive cases
Childs Nerv Syst, 17 (4-5), 252-6
PubMed 11398945

Eide PK, Due-Tønnessen B, Helseth E, Lundar T (2001)
Assessment of intracranial pressure volume relationships in childhood: the lumbar infusion test versus intracranial pressure monitoring
Childs Nerv Syst, 17 (7), 382-90
PubMed 11465790

Eide PK, Helseth E, Due-Tønnessen B, Lundar T (2001)
Changes in intracranial pressure after calvarial expansion surgery in children with slit ventricle syndrome
Pediatr Neurosurg, 35 (4), 195-204
PubMed 11694797

Helseth E, Due-Tønnessen B, Lote K, Skullerud K, Storm-Mathisen I, Wesenberg F, Lundar T (2001)
Ependymoma in children and young adults (0-19 years): report of 25 consecutive cases
Childs Nerv Syst, 17 (1-2), 24-30
PubMed 11219619

Lund-Johansen M, Scheie D, Muller T, Lundar T, Helseth E (2001)
Neurosurgical treatment of meningiomas in children and young adults
Childs Nerv Syst, 17 (12), 719-23
PubMed 11862437

Publications 2000

Lote K, Hatlevoll R, Bakke SJ, Due-Tønnesen B, Helseth E, Lundar T, Glomstein A, Skullerud K (2000)
[Long-term survival following surgery and radiotherapy of brain tumors in childhood]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 120 (10), 1142-5
PubMed 10863342

Tiller C, Myhrvold S, Lundar T (2000)
[Neurosurgical shunt treatment of children with hydrocephalus]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 120 (11), 1298-302
PubMed 10868090

Publications 1999

Due-Tønnessen BJ, Helseth E, Lundar T (1999)
[Will the shape of children's heads be standardized?]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 119 (26), 3945
PubMed 10592758

Helseth E, Due-Tonnessen B, Wesenberg F, Lote K, Lundar T (1999)
Posterior fossa medulloblastoma in children and young adults (0-19 years): survival and performance
Childs Nerv Syst, 15 (9), 451-5; discussion 456
PubMed 10502004

Langmoen IA, Lundar T (1999)
A tribute to Helge Nornes
Acta Neurochir Suppl, 72, 1-5
PubMed 10337409

Publications 1998

Berg-Johnsen J, Røste GK, Solgaard T, Lundar T (1998)
[Continuous intrathecal infusion of baclofen. A new therapeutic method for spasticity]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 118 (21), 3256-60
PubMed 9772811

Publications 1995

Lundar T (1995)
[Spinal puncture in suspected purulent meningitis]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 115 (29), 3632-3
PubMed 8539721

Lundar T (1995)
[The year of brain 1995--children's brain]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 115 (17), 2147-8
PubMed 7645000

Lundar T (1995)
[Treatment of acute head injuries in Norway]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 115 (13), 1599-600
PubMed 7778071

Publications 1994

Lundar T (1994)
Shunt removal or replacement based on intraventricular infusion tests
Childs Nerv Syst, 10 (5), 337-9
PubMed 7954504

Publications 1993

Gullestad HP, Bretteville G, Lundar T, Enger E (1993)
Tissue expansion for the treatment of myelomeningocele. Case report
Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg, 27 (2), 149-51
PubMed 8351497

Publications 1992

Langmoen IA, Lundar T, Vatne K, Hovind KH (1992)
Occurrence and management of fractured peripheral catheters in CSF shunts
Childs Nerv Syst, 8 (4), 222-5
PubMed 1394256

Lundar T (1992)
[Treatment of lumbar disk prolapse]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 112 (18), 2334
PubMed 1412231

Lundar T (1992)
[Head injuries]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 112 (8), 1029-31
PubMed 1553727

Lundar T (1992)
[Head and neck injuries during soccer games]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 112 (10), 1260
PubMed 1579903

Publications 1991

Ganes T, Lundar T (1991)
[Neurointensive monitoring. Experiences with neurophysiological examinations]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 111 (27), 3277-8
PubMed 1957283

Langmoen IA, Lundar T, Storm-Mathisen I, Lie SO, Hovind KH (1991)
Management of pediatric pontine gliomas
Childs Nerv Syst, 7 (1), 13-5
PubMed 2054800

Lundar T, Langmoen IA, Hovind KH (1991)
Fatal cardiopulmonary complications in children treated with ventriculoatrial shunts
Childs Nerv Syst, 7 (4), 215-7
PubMed 1933918

Lundar T, Langmoen IA, Hovind KH (1991)
Shunt failure caused by valve collapse
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 54 (6), 559-60
PubMed 1880522

Lundar T, Nornes H (1991)
[Meningoencephalocele]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 111 (25), 3065-6
PubMed 1948919

Lundar T, Nornes H (1991)
Steady-state lumbar infusion tests in the management of children with craniosynostosis
Childs Nerv Syst, 7 (1), 31-3
PubMed 2054805

Lundar T, Nornes H, Bakke SJ (1991)
[Pseudotumor cerebri]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 111 (1), 45-7
PubMed 2000587

Publications 1990

Bjøro K, Vatn M, Schrumpf E, Ganes T, Lundar T, Bergan A (1990)
[Liver transplantation in fulminant hepatic failure]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 110 (26), 3372-5
PubMed 2256061

Lundar T, Bakke SJ, Nornes H (1990)
Hydrocephalus in an achondroplastic child treated by venous decompression at the jugular foramen. Case report
J Neurosurg, 73 (1), 138-40
PubMed 2352015

Lundar T, Langmoen IA, Hovind KH, Skullerud K (1990)
[Brain tumors in children]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 110 (14), 1809-11
PubMed 2363141

Lundar T, Lindegaard KF, Nornes H (1990)
Continuous recording of middle cerebral artery blood velocity in clinical neurosurgery
Acta Neurochir (Wien), 102 (3-4), 85-90
PubMed 2186601

Lundar T, Nakstad P (1990)
[Acute intracranial hematomas in full term neonates]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 110 (16), 2063-5
PubMed 2368068

Lundar T, Nakstad P (1990)
[Torkildsen's operation--50 years later]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 110 (5), 584-6
PubMed 2408193

LUNDAR T, NORNES H (1990)
PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI-NEUROSURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Acta Neurochir. Suppl., 51, 366-368

Lundar T, Nornes H (1990)
Determination of ventricular fluid outflow resistance in patients with ventriculomegaly
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 53 (10), 896-8
PubMed 2266372

Lundar T, Nornes H (1990)
Pseudotumour cerebri-neurosurgical considerations
Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien), 51, 366-8
PubMed 2089940

Publications 1989

Lundar T (1989)
[The management of children with hydrocephalus in Norway]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 109 (11), 1156-7
PubMed 2734741

Lundar T (1989)
The use of intraventricular resorption tests (IVT) in the management of hydrocephalic children
Z Kinderchir, 44 Suppl 1, 27-8
PubMed 2623958

LUNDAR T (1989)
CEREBRAL PERFUSION DURING MAJOR CARDIAC-SURGERY IN CHILDREN - REPLY
Pediatr. Cardiol., 10 (1), 57-58

Publications 1988

Ganes T, Lundar T (1988)
EEG and evoked potentials in comatose patients with severe brain damage
Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 69 (1), 6-13
PubMed 2448122

Lundar T, Nakstad P (1988)
[Use of computer tomography for the evaluation of adequate shunt function]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 108 (11), 828
PubMed 3376059

Nestvold K, Lundar T, Blikra G, Lønnum A (1988)
Head injuries during one year in a central hospital in Norway: a prospective study. Epidemiologic features
Neuroepidemiology, 7 (3), 134-44
PubMed 3405366

Publications 1987

Lindegaard KF, Lundar T, Wiberg J, Sjøberg D, Aaslid R, Nornes H (1987)
Variations in middle cerebral artery blood flow investigated with noninvasive transcranial blood velocity measurements
Stroke, 18 (6), 1025-30
PubMed 2961104

Lundar T, Lindberg H, Lindegaard KF, Tjønneland S, Rian R, Bø G, Nornes H (1987)
Cerebral perfusion during major cardiac surgery in children
Pediatr Cardiol, 8 (3), 161-5
PubMed 2963264

Lundar T, Lindegaard KF, Refsum L, Rian R, Nornes H (1987)
Cerebrovascular effects of isoflurane in man. Intracranial pressure and middle cerebral artery flow velocity
Br J Anaesth, 59 (10), 1208-13
PubMed 3676050

Publications 1986

Lundar T (1986)
Cerebral perfusion during cardiac surgery
Lancet, 2 (8504), 457
PubMed 2874437

Lundar T, Lindegaard KF, Frøysaker T, Grip A, Bergman M, Am-Holen E, Nornes H (1986)
Cerebral carbon dioxide reactivity during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass
Ann Thorac Surg, 41 (5), 525-30
PubMed 3085604

Publications 1985

Lundar T, Frøysaker T, Lindegaard KF, Wiberg J, Lindberg H, Rostad H, Nornes H (1985)
Some observations on cerebral perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass
Ann Thorac Surg, 39 (4), 318-23
PubMed 3985707

Lundar T, Lindegaard KF, Frøysaker T, Aaslid R, Grip A, Nornes H (1985)
Dissociation between cerebral autoregulation and carbon dioxide reactivity during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass
Ann Thorac Surg, 40 (6), 582-7
PubMed 3935068

Lundar T, Lindegaard KF, Frøysaker T, Aaslid R, Wiberg J, Nornes H (1985)
Cerebral perfusion during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass
Ann Thorac Surg, 40 (2), 144-50
PubMed 3161464

Lundar T, Nestvold K (1985)
Pediatric head injuries caused by traffic accidents. A prospective study with 5-year follow-up
Childs Nerv Syst, 1 (1), 24-8
PubMed 3921251

Vatne K, Nakstad P, Lundar T (1985)
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of brain death. A comparison of conventional cerebral angiography with intravenous and intraarterial DSA
Neuroradiology, 27 (2), 155-7
PubMed 3887204

Publications 1983

Ganes T, Lundar T (1983)
The effect of thiopentone on somatosensory evoked responses and EEGs in comatose patients
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 46 (6), 509-14
PubMed 6875584

Lundar T, Frøysaker T, Nornes H (1983)
Cerebral damage following open-heart surgery in deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest
Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 17 (3), 237-42
PubMed 6648399

Lundar T, Frøysaker T, Nornes H (1983)
The clinical significance of changes in cerebral perfusion pressure during open-heart surgery
Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 17 (2), 163-9
PubMed 6604312

Lundar T, Frøysaker T, Nornes H, Lilleaasen P (1983)
Monitoring of intracranial pressure after open-heart surgery
Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 17 (2), 149-55
PubMed 6412356

Lundar T, Ganes T, Lindegaard KF (1983)
Induced barbiturate coma: methods for evaluation of patients
Crit Care Med, 11 (7), 559-62
PubMed 6861506

Lundar T, Stokke O (1983)
Total creatine kinase activity in cerebrospinal fluid as an indicator of brain damage during open-heart surgery
Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 17 (2), 157-61
PubMed 6604311

Publications 1982

Lundar T, Frøysaker T, Nornes H, Lilleaasen P (1982)
Aspects of cerebral perfusion in open-heart surgery
Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 16 (3), 217-22
PubMed 7170610

Publications 1981

Hørven I, Lundar T, Lilleaasen P, Hysing E, Stokke O (1981)
The effect of haemodilution on arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, intracranial and intra-ocular pressures in pigs
Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 15 (3), 273-7
PubMed 7347898

Publications 1979

Nornes H, Lundar T, Wikeby P (1979)
Cerebral arteriovenous malformations; results of microsurgical management
Acta Neurochir (Wien), 50 (3-4), 243-57
PubMed 517193

Publications 1978

Lundar T (1978)
[Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 35 cases from the central hospital in Akershus]
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 98 (13), 678-81
PubMed 653674

Publications 1977

Torvik A, Lundar T (1977)
A case of chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy resembling the Guillain-Barré syndrome
J Neurol Sci, 32 (1), 45-52
PubMed 864490

TORVIK A, LUNDAR T (1977)
CASE OF CHRONIC DEMYELINATING POLYNEUROPATHY RESEMBLING GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME
J. Neurol. Sci., 32 (1), 45-52